Proposals for Relief of Vulnerable Sections Affected by Strategies to Contain the Spread of COVID-19

    1. The Honorable Prime Minister of India
    2. Honorable Chief Ministers of all States

Urgent: Additional Proposals for the Short-term Relief of Vulnerable Workers and Populations Deeply impacted by Strategies to Contain the Spread of the Corona Pandemic

Dear Sir/Madam,

As the corona pandemic and measures to contain it, unfold, we are witnessing a humanitarian and economic crisis of unprecedented proportions. The Central government has announced a Rs. 1.7 trillion package aimed at alleviation of the impact of the lockdown on the poor (PMGKY) over the next three months. It is also heartening that a number of states have announced additional measures and relief packages varying in nature and scale. While welcoming these measures, we are of the view that given the magnitude of the crisis that the country is facing, these measures will have to be scaled up with immediate and unconditional financial and other support from the national government. Therefore we appeal to the Government of India and all the State Governments to initiate urgent additional measures that are required to address critical gaps in the short-term relief measures announced so far for the impacted population. These are listed below:

            1. Immediate minimum measures by governments to provide for food and subsistence requirements
Cash and kind assistance, and food for the homeless and most distressed, are urgently required by the poor in the informal economy who have lost jobs and incomes. We propose the following as minimum measures:
                a. Cash Income Support: The stoppage of employment and incomes for those in the informal economy urgently necessitates cash income support. The Centre’s announcement of transferring Rs. 500 per month to each JDY woman account holder is not sufficient. The Centre and States together should try and ensure a minimum transfer over the next three months of at least Rs 6000 per month with a major part borne by the Central Government. All households who do not have a tax payer or a formal worker should be eligible to receive the cash transfer through bank accounts. Assuming that about 20 crore households will require such assistance, the total quantum of assistance will be about Rs 3,60,000 crores over three months.
                b. Rations: The Central government has declared 5 kg free rations plus 1 kg free pulses as supplementary monthly ration. Many state governments have announced free basic or enhanced rations. There is a growing consensus among central/state governments that PDS rations be increased to a minimum of ten kg per person per month and should also include other essentials – including pulses, oil, soaps, gur/sugar. We request all state governments to ensure that an at least 10 kg free ration per person per month, along with other necessary items, is available for all eligible households.
                c. The Central government has already issued an advisory that all employees should be retained in public/private establishments and paid wages on time. As model employers, all central and state government establishments, statutory and public sector organisations should immediately issue compliance orders. Government of India should announce a scheme of wage compensation to support wage bills of unorganized sector and MSME enterprises during the lockdown so that workers are not layed off which is quite imminent. Certain component of fixed cost of unorganized and MSME sector should also borne by the central government so that their business can survive in the post lockdown situation.
                d. Some states have already announced increases in old age pensions and ex gratia transfers to workers, including construction workers. Immediate payments can play an important role in alleviating distress and its consequences. The Uttar Pradesh Government has already transferred INR 611 crores to over 27.15 lakh MGNREGA workers. The Telangana government has made ex gratia payments and food transfers to migrant workers. We welcome these steps as a good beginning. States should advertise the mechanism they are following to put their announcement into practice. The Central government has also issued a direction to all states to make ex gratia transfers to all construction workers registered under the Boards. This should be done immediately and all states should make immediate payments to the registered construction workers through the Construction Workers’ Welfare Fund. All other Central Welfare Funds should be utilized to provide immediate assistance to other workers such as Bidi workers and similar sources should be utilized for other categories of unemployed workers.
                e. In a time of an epochal crisis such as the present one, special effort has to be made to provide assistance and supplies on a non-discriminatory basis, by both public and private entities. Workers as a class should be treated with dignity and respect. States should endeavor to cover all those who for some reason have been wrongly excluded. Special efforts and drives should be carried out to include scheduled castes and tribes, persons of third gender, religious minorities, migrants etc. Not all poor households, particularly migrants, have functional bank accounts, and proper mechanisms need to be evolved on how cash assistance be designed for them. Similarly, special efforts should be put in place to identity and provide rations to landless households/individuals who do not have ration cards or whose ration cards have been deleted mistakenly and to identify and include persons who have been left out of the NSAP list. Governments should direct officials to ensure that not one needy person or household remains outside the social protection net being created to cope with the calamitous conditions.

            2. Urgent steps to deal with stranded populations
                a. The sudden lockdown has created a serious humanitarian and public health crisis involving vulnerable migrant workers and their families. Out of a total of forty to fifty million wage employed seasonal or circular migrants in the informal economy, a large proportion – especially those in construction, manufacturing or transport/travel industries – are currently without employment and want to head

back to their villages, with their accompanying family members, even under great odds. Already lakhs of workers and their families, and also students, have been on the roads, prepared to travel long distances and many have headed back in the last few days. These numbers could mount several times if the lockdown extends.
                b. The Central government has directed that there should be no movement of migrants and that district and state boundaries be sealed. In our view, this will exacerbate the humanitarian crisis and, if not properly handled, may result in crowding and consequential serious public health issues.
                c. We believe that migrants could be encouraged to stay back but not coerced. The facilities and space at the disposal of the Centre and the States should be utilized such that there is no crowding for such migrants, and food and other subsistence facilities such as water and sanitation should be made available. State Governments should immediately summon all facilities, public and private, for sheltering the migrant workers as well as to quarantine and create new treatment facilities. These could include all academic and public institutions such as  schools and colleges, hotels, hostels, marriage halls, indoor stadia, guest houses, and similar facilities.
                d. Many state governments such as Delhi, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Bihar have opened large numbers of shelters and ramped up community feeding programmes for migrant and homeless populations. We request all states should step in with similar measures. Government of India should announce that it will defray the cost of sheltering and feeding migrant workers and their families as a matter of national responsibility given their contribution to the national economy.
                e. The NDMA should immediately and urgently oversee a coordinated arrangement, with the assistance of the NDRF or other agencies, for transporting migrant workers who are already on the road by special trains, buses, and other transport to their home states. They will be better off and safer in their home environments than if they are kept back in crowded and congested places, separated from their families and communities.
                f. State governments have been directed to keep all migrant workers who have moved under quarantine for 14 days in public shelters. In our view, migrant returnees can be screened using the protocols followed at airports, and those detected to have infection or at high risk may be quarantined, while others can be safely transported back home for self-isolation or isolation at, or near, homes under community support and supervision, which is a more humane and effective solution. Source states should issue clear advisories on the safety and health of the returnees and the host populations and involve the PRIs and local bodies. All those who have completed the isolation period should be provided assistance and helped to integrate with their families and host communities
                g. Dedicated multi-lingual help lines for migrants should be set up immediately in all states and committees should be set up with the participation of organisations having experience of working with migrant workers.
                h. The Prime Minister’s Relief Fund and the Special Disaster Relief Fund created by the Prime Minister should be used for providing assistance to the migrants and for facilitating their stay, transport, and safe relocation to their homes, as the case may be.

            3. Measures to ensure safe harvesting and post-harvesting activities in rural areas
We are already in the middle of the Rabi harvesting season when standing crops have to be harvested, processed, and sold. Some states have already issued notification declaring harvesting and post-harvesting activities, including mandi operations, as essential services. The Government of India has also issued a second addendum to the lockdown guidelines exempting essential farming related operations, including movement of machinery. Clear notifications should be issued by all states, which should include safety guidelines. Procurement at MSP and storage by the FCI and State agencies should be enhanced to prevent a famine like condition from evolving.

           4. Support of civil society and voluntary workers be enlisted in identifying vulnerabilities and assisting with the deliverables
In all natural disasters in the past, civil society has played an important and prominent role in relief and rehabilitation. As in any natural disaster, the government’s capacity and preparedness to face the outcomes of the pandemic has to be augmented by that of civil society. The Government of India has set up a portal for the enlistment of individuals and organisations. This is also already happening in many states. States such as Kerala and Jharkhand have enlisted the support of large numbers of volunteers at the local level. All state governments should set up committees at the Village Panchayat, Block, District and State levels. They should start on-line portals, and organisations and individual volunteers could indicate the nature of the resources that they could muster, areas of work, support required etc. Panchayat leaders and officials and sub-district health staff, who will be the key in the local management of resources and control of the pandemic, should be educated and trained at the very earliest.

            5. Ensuring the safety, security, and welfare of the front-line workers, who are at risk
At present, the Central and state governments have to equip the frontline health workers and the hospitals, which should remain the top most priority for all governments, but frontline workers also include others engaged in essential services on behalf of governments (such as sanitation workers), or private firms (delivery workers, workers in chemist shops etc.) who also are at greater risk and under hardship. States should announce specific measures for the safety, job security, and welfare of all such workers and private employers should also follow up.

            6. Release of prisoners
Some states such as Delhi and Maharashtra have already announced the release of prisoners from overcrowded jails addressing public health concerns and releasing precious resources for other purposes. State should release under-trial persons and political persons, or those in jails for minor issues. This will immediately decongest prisons and release precious resources for other expenditure.

            7.  Revised NDMA Guidelines on the Lockdown suitable for India’s Context
The NDMA Guidelines have been revised from time to time through addendums. They should be comprehensively revised to allow people to produce, deliver, as well health related measures necessary under the present circumstances. Guidelines and explanatory videos, instead of being oriented towards middle-class India, should be cognizant of the nature of Indian urban and rural society, levels of homelessness, overcrowding, illiteracy etc. and large scale educational campaigns should be carried out and concerns addressed by experts on behalf of government through press conferences on a daily basis. Police are themselves frontline workers performing their duties under difficult circumstances but clear instructions should be issued to police in the light of these detailed guidelines not to harass distressed citizens who are either trying to produce, provide and distribute, or access, essential goods and services.

            8. Larger Support from the GoI is the Need of the Hour
Government of India as a sovereign institution alone has the fiscal capacity to raise significant financial resources. It should do so immediately by a three to four fold increase of the current relief package. It should also play a clearer and stronger role interstate coordination and mobilization of non-fiscal resources. Such coordination could have led to a better handling of the humanitarian crisis of workers stranded workers in cities and destination states.
We request you to urgently consider the above proposals and to take the necessary decisions at your level.

List of Signatories to the Letter to the Honorable Prime Minister of India and Honorable Chief Ministers of all States

    1. Aadya Swaminathan, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    2. Aasha Kapur Mehta, Visiting Professor, IHD and Former Professor, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi
    3. Abha Sur, MIT, Cambridge, USA
    4. Abhigna A S, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru
    5. Abinash Dash Choudhury, Jadavpur University, Kolkata
    6. Abhijit Sen, Former Member, planning Commission
    7. Aditi Madan, Fellow, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    8. Afsel C.K, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    9. Ajay Pratap Singh, Head, Department of History, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
    10. Ajit Mathur, IIM Ahmedabad
    11. Ajit Ranade, Economist, Aditya Birla Group
    12. Akhilendra Singh <[email protected]>
    13. Alakh Sharma, Professor & Director, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    14. Anna Joseph, Chetna Bharti, Chatra, Jharkhand
    15. Alok Kumar, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, University of Victoria, Canada
    16. Alpa Shah, London School of Economics
    17. Amit Basole, Associate Professor, Economics, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    18. Amita Bhide, Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
    19. Amita Pitre, Lead Specialist, Gender Justice, Oxfam India
    20. Amitabh Kundu, Distinguished Fellow, Research and Information System for Developing Countries, New Delhi
    21. Amman Madan, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru
    22. Amrita Datta, Assistant Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad
    23. Ankita Aggarwal, City University of New York
    24. Anu Abraham, Assistant Professor, School of Economics, NMIMS (deemed to be) University
    25. Apoorva Kaiwar, IndustriALL Union
    26. Arindam Banerjee, Associate Professor, Ambedkar University Delhi
    27. Arjun Kumar, Director, IMPRIIndia, New Delhi
    28. Arvind Pandey, Assistant Professor,Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Hyderabad
    29. Aseem Prakash, Professor, TISS, Hyderabad
    30. Asha Gutiapalli, SRM University, Chennai
    31. Ashok Gulati, Professor, ICRIER, New Delhi
    32. Ashwani Kumar, IHD, Ranchi
    33. Atul Sarma, Visiting Professor, ISID, New Delhi
    34. AV Jose, Hon. Visiting Professor, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram
    35. Avinash Mishra, Jawaharlal Nehru University
    36. A.K. Shiva Kumar, Development Economist
    37. A.K.Singh, Former Director, Giri Institute of Development Studies, Lucknow
    38. Abha Mishra, Ajeevika Bureau
    39. Abhayraj Naik, Visiting Faculty, National Law School of India University
    40. Adithi N Rao, Centre for Sustainable Employment (CSE), Azim Premji University
    41. Ajit Jha, Assistant Professor, Institute for Studies in Industrial Development, New Delhi
    42. Amita Shah, Former Professor, Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Ahmedabad
    43. Amitabha Panda, Former Civil Servant
    44. Amrita Ghatak, Assistant Professor, Gujarat Institute of Development Research
    45. Anil Verma, Professor, University of Toronto, Canada
    46. Anjani Kumar, Research Fellow, IFPRI, Asia Office
    47. Anjor Bhaskar, Faculty, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    48. Anna Dani, Former Civil Servant
    49. Archana R., Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    50. Aruna V, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    51. Arup Mitra, Professor, South Asian University
    52. Ashok Kumar Sharma, Former Civil Servant and Ambassador to Finland
    53. Ashok Parikh
    54. Aurobindo Behera, Former Civil Servant
    55. Babu Mathew, Centre for Labour Studies, National School University, Bangalore
    56. Balwant Mehta, Fellow, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    57. Bezwada Wilson, Safai Karamchari Andolan
    58. Bharat Chandra Rout, Institutions of Eminence (IOE), UGC
    59. Bharti Ali, Centre for Child Rights, New Delhi
    60. Bhim Reddy, Fellow, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    61. Bina Agarwal, Professor, University of Manchester, UK
    62. Binay Kumar Pathak, Ram Nirikshan Atma Ram College, L N Mithila University, Bihar
    63. Bindu Menon Mannil, Assistant Professor, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    64. Brijesh Kumar, Former Civil Servant
    65. C.P. Chandrasekhar, Former Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    66. Carol Upadhya, Professor, NIAS, Bangalore
    67. Cenny Thomas, Ajeevika Bureau
    68. Ch. Shankar Rao, Department of Economics, T.R.R Government College, AP
    69. Chandan Kumar, Social Activist
    70. Chandrakala Padia, Former Chairperson, IIIAS, Shimla, and Former Professor, BHU
    71. Charu Garg, International Consultant, Health Systems and Policy, Visiting Professor, Institute for Human development, Delhi
    72. Chidambara (Ms.), Asst.Professor, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
    73. Chitra R, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    74. Darshini Mahadevia, Visiting Professor, School of Arts and Sciences, Ahmedabad University
    75. Debabany Chakravarty, Research Consultant, Delhi
    76. Debolina Kundu, Professor, NIUA, New Delhi
    77. Deeksha Tayal, IHD, Delhi
    78. Deepak Nayyar, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    79. Dev Nathan, Visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi
    80. Dilip D'Souza
    81. Dinesh Abrol, Formerly NISTAD, Delhi
    82. Dinesh Awasthi, Visiting Professor, Sardar Patel Institute of Economic and Social Research, Ahmedabad
    83. Dipa Sinha, Assistant Professor, Ambedkar University Delhi
    84. Divya Pradeep, Christ University, Bangalore
    85. Divya Verma, Ajeevika Bureau
    86. Elina Horo, Adivasi Women's Network, Ranchi, Jharkhand
    87. Elisa T. Bertuzzo, Honorary Professor, Kunsthochschule Berlin, Germany
    88. Enakshi Ganguly, New Delhi
    89. Ernesto Noronha, Professor, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
    90. Farkhanda Naaz, Azim Premji University
    91. Fr. D.M. Solomon S.J, Bagaicha, C/O Agricultural Training Centre, RANCHI
    92. G. Balachandran, Former Civil Servant
    93. Gagan Sethi, Founder Jan Vikas
    94. Ganesh Devy, Linguist and Cultural Activist, Gujarat
    95. Garima Gupta, Assistant professor, Department of Psychology, AMPGC, BHU, Varanasi
    96. Gautam Mody, General Secretary, New Trade Union Initiative
    97. Gayatri A. Menon, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    98. Gayatri Singh, Sr Advocate
    99. Gerry Rodgers, Fomerly ILO & Visiting Professor, IHD, Delhi
    100. Ghanshyam Shah, Former Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
    101. Gita Jayaraj, Doctoral Scholar – IIT-Madras, Chennai
    102. Govind Kelkar, Visiting Professor, Council for Social Development, New Delhi
    103. Hansa Jain, Associate Professor, SSPIESR, Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
    104. Harshita Vaid, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    105. Harshita Vaid, Student, Azim Premji University
    106. Hema Swaminathan, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
    107. Himanshu, Associate Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    108. Hindal Tyabji, Former Civil Servant
    109. Igor Bosc, International Labour Organisation
    110. Indira Dutta, Former Professor and Dean, Central University of Gujarat
    111. Indira Hirway, Director, Center For Development Alternatives, Ahmedabad
    112. Indrajit Roy, University of York
    113. Indrani Mazumdar, Professor, Centre for Women’s Developent Studies, Delhi
    114. Ishan Anand, Assistant Professor, O. P. Jindal Global University
    115. Ishita Mukhopadhyay, Professsor, University of Calcutta
    116. Ishwar Chandra Awasthi, Professor, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    117. J. Krishnamurthy, Former Economist, International Labour Organisation, Geneva
    118. J. Mohan Rao, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    119. Jadgish Chandra, Centre for Education and Communication
    120. Jashodhara Dasgupta, New Delhi
    121. Jayan J Thomas, Associate Professor, Economics, IIT Delhi
    122. Jayaseelan Raj, Assistant Professor, CDS, Thiruvananthapuram
    123. Jayati Ghosh, Jawaharlal Nehru University
    124. Jean Dreze, Visiting Professor, Ranchi University
    125. Jeemol Unni, Professor, Economics and Public Policy, Ahmedabad University
    126. Jens Lerche, SOAS, University of London, UK
    127. John Harriss, Professor Emeritus, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada
    128. Joydeep Chakraborty, Project Manager, Ernst and Young
    129. Judith Hayer, Oxford University
    130. Kavri Qureshi, University of Edinburgh
    131. K P Kannan, Former Director, CDS, Thiruvananthapuram
    132. K.R. Shyam Sundar, Professor, Xavier School of Management, Jamshedpur
    133. Kailas Sarap, Former Professor, Sambalpur University
    134. Kamlesh, Indore
    135. Kanak Kanti Bagchi, University of North Bengal, Siliguri
    136. Kanav Narayan Sahgal, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    137. Keshab Das, Professor, Gujarat Institute of Development Research
    138. Krishnavatar Sharma, Ajeevika Bureau
    139. Kurien Parambil
    140. Lalit Mathur, Former Civil Servant
    141. Lakhwinder Singh Gill, Professor, Punjabi University
    142. Lenin Raghuvanshi, PVCHR, Varanasi
    143. Litty Denis, Assistant Professor, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar
    144. Lovely Zogta
    145. M G Devasahayam, Former Civil Servant
    146. M.N. Roy, Former Civil Servant
    147. Madhura Swaminathan, Professor, Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore
    148. Malathy D, Professor, IIT Madras
    149. Manoj Bandan, IHD, Delhi
    150. Manoj Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, BHU
    151. Manoshi Mitra, Formerly of Asian Development Bank
    152. Manu V. Mathai, Azim Premji University
    153. Martin Macwan, Social Activist
    154. Maryam Aslany, Worson College, University of Oxford
    155. Maya Manivannan, Azim Premji University
    156. Md Hasan Modal, School of Education, Azim Premji University
    157. Meena Gupta, Former Civil Servant
    158. Meera Tiwari, Professor, University of East London, Uk
    159. Meghnad Desai, British Economist and Labour Politician
    160. Mihika Chatterjee, University of Oxford
    161. Mohan Dharavath, EFL University, Hyderabad
    162. Mohanakumar S, Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur
    163. Mriganka Sur, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA
    164. Mubashira Zaidi, Researcher, New Delhi
    165. Mujahidul Islam, Azim Premji University
    166. Manu Chakravarthy, Visiting Professor, The National College, Bangalore
    167. Nagesh Kumar, Director, South and South-West Asia Office, UNESCAP
    168. Nagraj Adve
    169. Nalini Nayak, SEWA- Kerala
    170. Narendra Panjwani, Xaviers Institute of Communication
    171. Naresh Saxena, Former Civil Servant
    172. Navdeep Mathur, IIM Ahmedabad
    173. Navsharan Singh, International Development Research Centre, New Delhi
    174. Niharika Verma, Student, Azim Premji University
    175. Nijara Deka, Associate Fellow, NCAER, New Delhi
    176. Niranjan Reddy, Student, Azim Premji University
    177. Nirmala Banerjee, Former Professor of Economics, Kolkata
    178. Nisha Srivastava, Former Professor, niversity of Allahabad
    179. Nishith Prakash, Associate Professor, University of Cunnectict, USA
    180. Nitesh Jaiswal, Jaipur, Rajasthan
    181. Niti Mehta, Sardar Patel Institute of Economic and Social Research, Ahmedabad
    182. Nitya Skaria, Azim Premji University
    183. Nivedita Jayaram, Ajeevika Bureau
    184. Nivedita Singhal, Azim Premji University
    185. Niveditha Singhal
    186. NP Samy, National Centre for Labour
    187. Nripendra Mishra, Professor of Economics, Banaras Hindu University
    188. Om Prakash Singh, Director, Environment and Climate Section, Chennai
    189. P Karunakar,
    190. P. R Dasgupta , Former Civil Servant
    191. Padmini Swaminathan, Former Professor and Director, MIDS
    192. Palash Gughan
    193. Pavitra Mohan, Basic Healthcare Services (BHS)
    194. Poonam Muttreja, Director, Population Foundation of India, New Delhi
    195. Prabhat Patnaik, Former Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
    196. Prakriti, Azim Premji University
    197. Prasad Chacko, Social Worker, Ahmedabad
    198. Prashant Kumar Arya, Institute for Human Development, Ranchi
    199. Praveen Jha, Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    200. Praveena Kodoth, Professor, CDS Thiruvananthapuram
    201. Preeti Singh, Independent Researcher and Activist, Bangalore
    202. Premilla D'Cruz, Professor, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
    203. Puja Guha, Assistant Professor, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    204. Pulin Nayak, Former Professor, Delhi School of Economics
    205. Pushpendra, Professor, TISS, Patna
    206. Ramadas, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    207. R. Ramakumar, Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Deonar, Mumbai
    208. Rachel Chatterjee, Former Civil Servant
    209. Raghav Mehrotra, Ajeevika
    210. Rahul Khullar, Former Civil Servant
    211. Rahul Menon, Assistant Professor, School of Livelihoods and Development
    212. Rahul Mukhopadhyay, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru
    213. Rajashri Dasgupta, Kolkata
    214. Rajendran Narayanan, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    215. Rajesh Shukla, Managing Director and CEO, PRICE, Delhi
    216. Rajeswari Raina, Professor, Shiv Nadar University
    217. Rajib Sutradhar, Assistant Professor, Christ University, Bangalore
    218. Rajushar, Former Civil Servant
    219. Rakesh Basant, Professor, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
    220. Rakesh Mohan, Former Deputy Governor, Reserve Bank of India
    221. Rakesh Raman, Professor, Department of Economics, Banaras Hindu University
    222. Ramaswamy K.V., Professor, IGIDR, Mumbai
    223. Rammanohar Reddy, India Forum
    224. Ranu Jain, Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
    225. Ravi Duggal, Independent Researcher and Activist, Public Health Policy
    226. Ravi Srivastava, Director, Centre for Employment Studies, IHD, Delhi
    227. Reetika Khera, Associate Professor, IIM Ahmedabad
    228. Ritu Dewan, former Director & Professor, University of Mumbai
    229. Riya Parikh, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
    230. Rosemary Dzuvichu, Nagaland University, Kohima Campus,Meriema Nagaland
    231. Rukmani Ramani
    232. S.Mahendra Dev, Director, IGIDR, Mumbai
    233. Sahana Roy Chowdhury, International Management Institute, Kolkata
    234. Samruddhi. M. Jaware, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    235. Sanchita Bhattacharya, NILER, Delhi
    236. Sandip Sarkar, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    237. Sandhya S. Iyer, Associate Professor, TISS, Mumbai
    238. Sankar Kumar Bhaumik, Professor, Central University of Bihar
    239. Santosh Poonia, Ajeevika Bureau
    240. Saraswati Raju, Former Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University
    241. Sarita Ganesh, Mumbai
    242. Sarthi Acharya, Professor, IHD, Delhi
    243. Saswati Paik, Faculty, Azim Premji University, Bengaluru
    244. Sayak Sinha, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    245. Seetha Ananthasivan, Prakriya Green Wisdom School, Bangalore, Karnataka
    246. Sharada Gopal, Dharwad, Karnataka
    247. Shehnaz, Azim Premji University
    248. Shiney Chakraborty, Economist, Institute of Social Studies Trust, New Delhi
    249. Shipra Maitra, Professor, Institute for Human Development
    250. Shruti Nagvanshi, Voice of People, Varanasi
    251. Shireen Vakil, Tata Trusts
    252. Shyjan Davis, University of Calicut, Kerala
    253. Siddharth Bhatnagar, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    254. Smita Gupta, Economist, New Delhi
    255. Smruthi M Ananth, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    256. Snehal M Shah, Independent Researcher, Delhi
    257. Somjita Laha, Fellow, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    258. Sona Mitra, Senior Economist, IWWAGE, New Delhi
    259. Sonalini Mirchandani, Former Civil Servant
    260. Sonu Pandey, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    261. Soumya Mittal, Azim Premji University
    262. Subhanil Chaowdhary, IDSK, Kolkata
    263. S.S. Gill, Former DG, CRRID, Chandigarh
    264. Sudhir Katiyar, Centre for Labor Research and Action
    265. Sujata Patel, National Fellow, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla
    266. Sujatha Rao, Former Civil Servant
    267. Sujit Mridha, Urban Planner, Deloitte
    268. Sukhadeo Thorat, Professor Emeritus, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    269. Sukhwinder Singh, Professor of Economics (Retd), Punjabi University, Patiala
    270. Sumit Mazumdar, Health Economist, University of York
    271. Sunayana Swain,
    272. Sundar Burra, Former Civil Servant
    273. Sunder Thomas, Former Civil Servant
    274. Sunil Mishra, Fellow, Institute for Human Development, Delhi
    275. Suresh Agarwal, Former Professor, Delhi University
    276. Suresh K Goel, Former Civil Servant
    277. Sushil Khanna, Professor (Retd.), IIMC
    278. Swastika Sanghmitra /Sahelee Adhyayana Kendra ,Ranchi/
    279. Swati Dutta, Fellow, IHD, Delhi
    280. Swati Narayan, Visiting Fellow, Institute for Human Development, Ranchi
    281. T.R. Raghunandan, Former Civil Servant
    282. Taanika Shankar, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    283. Tania Debnath, , National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi
    284. Tanuka Endow, Professsor, IHD, Delhi
    285. Tanushree Kundu, Institute for Human Development, Ranchi
    286. Tapan Kumar Bose, New Delhi
    287. Tara Brahme, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    288. Tarini Gautam, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    289. Tayeena Tabiya, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    290. Tulika Tripathi, Assistant Professor, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar
    291. U.Vindhya, Professor of Psychology, TISS, Hyderabad
    292. Uma Rani, International Labour Organisation, Geneva
    293. Umakant, Dalit Human Rights Activist
    294. Utsa Patnaik, Former Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi
    295. V. Selvam, Regional Director, ISS Regional Centre Puducherry
    296. Vachaspathi Shukla, Faculty, Sardar Patel Institute, Ahmedabad
    297. Vasudha Pande, Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi
    298. Vandana Swami, Faculty, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    299. Venkatesh Athreya, former Professor, Chennai
    300. Vibhuti Patel, Former Professor, SNDT University, Mumbai
    301. Vidhya Soundararajan, Assistant Professor, IIM, Bangalore
    302. Vidya Sagar Giri, General Secretary, AITUC
    303. Vijaybaskar, Associate Professor, MIDS, Chennai
    304. Vijoy Prakash, IAS(Retd), Chairman, Bihar Vidyapith, Patna
    305. Vikas Maniar, Azim Premji University
    306. Vikash Prakash, Azim Premji University
    307. Vinay Gidwani, Professor, University of Minnesota, USA
    308. Vinay Kumar Jha, Institution: Independent Researcher, Madhubani
    309. Vinoj Abraham, CDS, Thiruvananthapuram
    310. Vishwathika Sitaram, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    311. Vrijesh Upadhyay, BMS
    312. Yamini Vidya Srikanth, Azim Premji University, Bangalore
    313. Zico Dasgupta, Azim Premji University, Bangalore

First published in Institute of Human Development.